Categories
Nature

The Sky

 

What is The sky?
The sky is defined as what corresponds to the surface of the earth upward, and thus it has included many parts of the universe, but it can be clearly defined as the area that corresponds to the surface of the earth, from the sea level to a height of 100 km, a region called the Carmen Line, a border that separates the sky and space, So that the boundary is in one of the atmosphere’s layers.

Why is the sky blue?
Gases and molecules around the globe surround the problem of the atmosphere, or what is known as the sky, especially nitrogen and oxygen gases, and those gases are known to be invisible, but when the sun’s rays penetrate the atmosphere, they are exposed to the gas molecules that constitute it, and therefore these molecules analyze the white light that contains what It is called the colors of the spectrum of different wavelengths, and then these gases absorb the wavelengths of colors such as red and green except for those that are blue and which they reflect only, which gives that blue to the sky.

Atmospheric layers
The atmosphere extends from the Earth’s surface up to space in the form of layers, each of which has certain characteristics, and therefore the sky joins the atmosphere, but only to certain layers, and the most important layers of the atmosphere that represent the sky are the following: –

The Troposphere is the first layer of the atmosphere that extends from the surface of the land to a height of 10 km and is the layer in which climate changes occur and touches the surface of the earth directly, and therefore living organisms live in this layer.

The stratosphere is considered the second layer of the atmosphere and extends up to 50 km above the surface of the earth. This layer contains the so-called ozone layer that absorbs ultraviolet light from the sun’s rays, and is characterized by high temperatures with increasing altitude.

Mesosphere
The mesosphere is located directly above the stratosphere, so that its distance from the Earth reaches 85 km, and it has only about 1% of the atmospheric pressure on the surface of the sea. .

After that the layers of the atmosphere are considered from within the outer space, so that there are three other layers, which are the thermosphere, the exosphere, and the enosphere, which reach a height of 190 km above the surface of the earth.These layers are distinguished by properties that differ from those of the atmosphere, known as the sky of the earth, so that they possess radiative, ionic properties and zero gravity.

Sky color and lighting

White sunlight consists of a mixture of several colors, and sunlight appears to us tilted to yellow, because yellow photons are predominant with the presence of red, green, blue and purple photons, but they are below the level of seeing the human eye. The interaction between sunlight and air shows us some familiar scenes in our daily life. In addition to other rare beautiful scenery.

Among the familiar scenes is the distinctive blue sky color, which varies from the dark color that we see during the day in the middle of the sky above our heads when we are on the tops of the mountains, to the multiple colors that result from scattering light, and the crowd compositions of the atmosphere’s atmosphere are compared in size with the visible wavelength . Under this condition, the atmospheric particles change the direction of the movement of the solar photons when they collide with them. The wave; the red and yellow light of sunlight passes through the air in a very large percentage, while photons of blue and violet are subjected to dispersal in the atmosphere and reach the surface of the earth from many other directions of the atmosphere. Violet light indulges in blue color, so blue photons are predominant in sunlight, and the eye is more sensitive to long wavelengths, so we see the color of the sky blue, and the degree of blue changes according to the direction of looking at the sky, so the blue color is light towards the horizon due to the increase in thickness Atmosphere. The color of the sky above our heads when viewed from mountain peaks or airplanes is close to the color purple. Moonlight causes the same effects when the sky is clear and the moon is full, so the color of the sky becomes dark blue.

 

 

Categories
Lakes

Lakes in Europe

 

Biggest Lakes in Europe

Lake Garda
Lake Garda
370 km²
Lake Como
Lake Como
146 km²
Lake Geneva
Lake Geneva
580 km²
Lake Constance
Lake
Constance
536 km²
Lake Bled
Lake Bled
145 ha
Lake Ohrid
Lake Ohrid
358 km²
Lake Maggiore
Lake
Maggiore
212.5 km²
Lake Annecy
Lake Annecy
27.59 km²
Lake Balaton
Lake Balaton
592 km²
Saimaa
Saimaa
Lake Peipus
Lake Peipus
3,555 km²
Lake Ladoga
Lake Ladoga
17,700 km²
Lake Onega
Lake Onega
9,700 km²
Saimaa
Saimaa
4,400 km²
Lake Lucerne
Lake Lucerne
113.6 km²
Lake Skadar
Lake Skadar
370 km²
Lake Neusiedl
Lake
Neusiedl
315 km²
Vänern
Vänern
5,650 km²
Lake Orta
Lake Orta
18.2 km²
Loch Ness
Loch Ness
56.4 km²
Mjøsa
Mjøsa
362 km²
Lake Beloye
Lake Beloye
1,125 km²
IJsselmeer
IJsselmeer
1,100 km²
Mälaren
Mälaren
1,140 km²
Loch Lomond
Loch Lomond
71 km²
Lake Päijänne
Lake
Päijänne
1,080 km²
Lake Lugano
Lake Lugano
48.7 km²
Kuybyshev Reservoir
Kuybyshev
Reservoir
6,450 km²
Lake Topozero
Lake
Topozero
986 km²
Lake Brienz
Lake Brienz
29.8 km²
Lake Vygozero
Lake
Vygozero
1,250 km²
Great Prespa Lake
Great Prespa
Lake
272 km²
Lake Ilmen
Lake Ilmen
982 km²
Lake Imandra
Lake Imandra
876 km²
Lake Segozero
Lake
Segozero
906 km²
Võrtsjärv
Võrtsjärv
270 km²
Lake Manych-Gudilo
Lake Manych-
Gudilo
344 km²
Vättern
Vättern
1,900 km²
Hallstätter See
Hallstätter
See
8.55 km²
Śniardwy
Śniardwy
113.8 km²
Rybinsk Reservoir
Rybinsk
Reservoir
4,580 km²
Lake Pyaozero
Lake
Pyaozero
659 km²
Lake Thun
Lake Thun
48.3 km²
Lake Bohinj
Lake Bohinj
3.3 km²
Pielinen
Pielinen
894.2 km²
Tsimlyansk Reservoir
Tsimlyansk
Reservoir
2,700 km²
Razim Lake
Razim Lake
415 km²
Lake Kovdozero
Lake
Kovdozero
608 km²
Lough Neagh
Lough Neagh
392 km²
Lake Umbozero
Lake
Umbozero
422 km²
Lake Vozhe
Lake Vozhe
416 km²
Categories
Landscapes

Mountains in Europe